Interventional radiology
 
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Interventional radiology ( X-ray surgery )

This is a modern, fast developing area in radiology, combining performing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures under fluoroscopy, ultrasound, computed and magnetic resonance imaging. This is one of the most promising areas of minimally invasive interventional medicine.

It is used in many areas of medicine, such as cardiology, urology, orthopedics, endocrinology, gynecology and others. It also works closely with nephrologists, hematologists and oncologists.

The rapid modernization of imaging techniques: X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, computer navigation, optical devices, the variety of computer modules and  ultrasound systems raised the level of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological procedures to the highest level.

The most common methods of interventional radiology are:

Radiography

Ultrasound

CT – Computed tomography is used to diagnose: cross-sectional images of the internal structure of abscesses, cranial trauma, fractures, tumors, and others. For therapeutic purposes, CT is used for biopsy puncture, drug delivery and monitoring of treatment outcomes.

MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The radiologist can “see” how the blood goes through the heart, spinal cord, liver, brain, etc. He can “see” vascular, degenerative and biochemical changes in tissue metabolism disorders and the developmental of abnormalities in the body.

PET – positron emission tomography – a functional imaging to detect the disease in its beginning tumor process, before the onset of clinical signs. The best method for canceer diagnosis.

Methods of Interventional Radiology in diagnostic help to determine the nature, form, style, focus and lesion volume in the blood vessels, tissues, bones of any human organ. Based on the real vision of the problem area, its exact data, it is easier to carry out an “operation without a scalpel”: coronary artery stenting, replacement heart valves, lungs, prosthesis, removal of blood clots, drainage of the biliary tract, and others. With the help of an interventional radiologist, on can perform intravascular interventions, multiple puncture embolization (blocking of blood vessels), occlusion, aneurysm clipping, and others.

IR allows the radiologist:

  • To find and destroy the arteries that feed the tumor;
  • To prevent blood flow to organs and tissues of the body (embolization);  aneurysm of the portal vein, the uterine arteries, gastrointestinal and other bleeding;
  • To eliminate surgical complications;
  • To identify pathological lesions and deliver a cure and others.

For  diagnosis and treatment of various diseases radiologists performes:

  • Cardiovascular pathologies – vascular catheterization of arterial and venous vessels.
  • Catheterization of the biliary tract.
  • Targeted insertion of a needle biopsy of the body organs.
  • Inserting different catheters for dialysis, chemotherapy, antibiotics and intravenous delivery food.
  • Maintain intravascular filters
  • Diagnosis of spinal herniation
  • Minimally invasive operative treatment of spinal disorders without cuts – infiltration is running under the control of fluoroscopy or computed tomography
  • Removing foreign bodies and much more.
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