Branch of medicine that deals with diseases related to the respiratory system (lung disease, bronchial pulmonary pleura and mediastinum (the space between the lungs).
Pneumology – prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.
Major diseases – respiratory failure, asthma, chronic cough, as well as infectious (abscess of lung, bronchial pneumonia, pleurisy), or cancer.
The most common causes of pneumological diseases are: environmental pollution, hypothermia, low immunity, fatigue, and smoking.
The doctor in Pneumology (pulmonologist) treats with medication, if necessary, in conjunction with the surgeon, performes surgery.
A very important role in the treatment of diseases of the pulmonary system is climatotherapy. Switzerland, because of its geographical location, mild climate and fresh air favorably affects the recovery process of patients with problems in pneumology.
Methods of diagnosis:
- Spirometry – basic clinical method, which consists in measuring the volume and lung capacity, high-speed performance of inhalation and exhalation. For example, you can see the narrowing of the lung or respiratory discomfort flow.
- Blood gas analysis – laboratory tests that can detect the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood; from the data obtained on can make conclusions about the state of the lungs.
- Allergy tests – the body’s response to certain antigens (items recognized as an alien) or the presence of antibodies (proteins that recognize foreign substances and block them) can also be controlled by skin tests or blood tests.
- Endoscopic techniques also play a very important role in the diagnosis. Bronchoscopy is based on the introduction into the cavity of the bronchi special tube (endoscope) through which you can: watch the view from inside the bronchi; take from the lumen of the bronchi and mucus pieces of tissue (tumor, lung tissue) for analysis. Bronchoscope is also a convenient tool for the administration of drugs directly to the disease site.
- Radiology and nuclear medicine have made significant progress in recent years, allowing for a more accurate diagnosis.
A very important factor for the optimal treatment is early detection of the disease.