Branch of medicine that deals with the study of allergies and allergic diseases, causes and development, methods of treatment and prevention of allergic reactions.
The demand for professionals allergists in recent years has increased significantly. The cause was a sudden massive increase in the incidence of allergies due to pollution.
Allergy is a manifestation of allergic reactions to various stimuli (allergens): dust, pollen, chemicals (including nutritional supplements, coloring agents, preservatives and pharmaceuticals), wool, etc.
Usually, allergy occurs when exposed to allergens – house dust mites, animal dander and pollen of plants, fungi, microorganisms, mold, certain foods, after insect bites. Other causes, such as strong odors, cold, exercise, cold air, emotions can cause a reaction similar to an allergy. The reason for that is the increased sensitivity (hyperreactivity) of the respiratory tract caused by exposure to an allergen.
Allergic diseases in most cases begin to appear in childhood, as it was then formed by the immune system responsible for the body’s reaction to allergens.
The most common symptoms of allergies are: lacrimation, rhinorrhea (runny nose), sneezing, coughing, as well as the appearance of skin reactions: redness, itching, spots, swelling.
Major diseases in allergy:
Allergic rhinitis – an inflammation of the nasal mucosa, induced by a non-infectious factors.
Bronchial asthma – a non-infectious inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and at the level of the lungs that develops in response to the body contact with the allergen.
Seasonal hay fever – Seasonal allergic reaction to the pollen of flowering plants.
Atopic dermatitis – this is one of the most common diseases of allergic nature, manifested in severe, affecting the skin. The disease is dermatitis caused by genetics and, unfortunately, is chronic.
Angioedema – this is the most serious disease, which can lead to death.
Treatment and prevention:
The allergology specialist first conducts allergy tests to determine the cause of the disease. In addition to drugs that reduce the body’s sensitivity to an allergen, can be carried allergen-specific immunotherapy. But the most important in the prevention of allergic reactions of the body is the avoidance of contact with the allergen.