Immunology is the science of the structure and patterns of the functioning of the immune system, its diseases and methods of immunotherapy.
Immunity from lat.Immunitas – liberation. In ancient Rome, citizen free from certain public service obligations were called this way.
Immunity consists in the body’s resistance to infectious agents and foreign substances. It does not really matter what this “alien” is – an infection (bacteria, viruses, etc.) or “Parties” protein (eg. Organ transplant). If such a “stranger” gets in our body, then it immediately begins to produce specific antibodies, which combined with the antigen (a stranger), blocksand neutralizes it. Moreover, the body is so cleverly arranged that it is able to distinguish between “its agents” and the “alien”, trapped outside. As well as it produces for each “foreign” antigen, an antibody corresponding to him.
Immunity provides protective properties for the skin and mucous membranes, cells of the immune system, humoral factors, interferon, and others. One can distinguish innate and adaptive immunity.
So, if generalized, by immunity we understand:
- Resistance to infections
- Reactions involving the removal of any foreign body material.